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Insidious List Context

By Jeff Boes
September 20, 2012

Recently, I fell into a deep pit. Not literally, but a deep pit of Perl debugging. As a result, I’m here to warn you and yours about “Insidious List Context(TM)”.

(Note: this is a fairly elementary discussion, for people early in their Perl wizardry training.)

Perl has two contexts for evaluating expressions: list and scalar. (All who know this stuff cold can skip down a ways.) “Scalar” context is what non-Perl languages just call “normal reality”, but Perl likes to do things … differently … so we have more than one context.

In scalar context, a scalar is a scalar is a scalar, but a list becomes a scalar that represents the number of items in the list. Thus,

@x = (1, 1, 1);  # @x is a list of three 1s
# vs.
$x = (1, 1, 1);  # $x is "3", the list size

In list context, a list of things is still a list of things. That’s pretty simple, but when you are expecting a scalar and you get a list, your world can get pretty confused.

Okay, now the know-it-alls have rejoined us. I had a Perl hashref being initialized with code something like this:

my $hr = {
  KEY1 => $value1,
  KEY2 => $value2,
  KEY_TROUBLE => (defined($foo) ? mysub($foo) : 1),
  KEY3 => $value3,

So here is the issue: if mysub() returns a list, then the hashref will get extra data. Remember, Perl n00bs, “=>” is not a magical operator, it’s just a “fat comma”. So a construction like this:

1 => (2, 3, 4)

is really the same as:

1, 2, 3, 4

Here’s a complete example to illustrate just what size and shape hole I fell into:

use strict;
use Data::Dumper;

my($value1,$value2,$value3,$foo) = qw(value1 value2 value3 foo);

my $hr = {
  KEY1 => $value1,
  KEY2 => $value2,
  KEY_TROUBLE => (defined($foo) ? mysub($foo) : 1),
  KEY3 => $value3,

print Data::Dumper->Dumper($hr);

sub mysub {
  return qw(junk extrajunk);

This outputs:

$VAR1 = 'Data::Dumper';
$VAR2 = {
          'extrajunk' => 'KEY3',
          'KEY2' => 'value2',
          'KEY1' => 'value1',
          'value3' => undef,
          'KEY_TROUBLE' => 'junk'

Now, the actual subroutine involved in my little adventure was even more insidious: it returned a list context because it was evaluating a regular expression, in a list context. Its actual source:

sub is_yes {
   return( defined($_[0]) && ($_[0] =~ /^[yYtT1]/));

So watch those expression-evaluation contexts; they can turn fairly harmless expressions into code-busters.

interchange perl


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