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Web Projects for a Rainy Day

raindrops on a plant

Image by Yellowstone NPS on Flickr

With the COVID-19 quarantine disrupting life for many of us, I thought I’d put together a list of things you can do with your website on a rainy day. These are things to keep your business moving even if you’re at home and some of your projects are stuck waiting on things to reopen. If you’re looking for some useful things to do to fill your days over the next few months, this post is for you!

Major Version Updates

Make a list of your entire stack, from OS to database to development frameworks. Note the current version and research the current supported versions. I find Wikipedia pages to be fairly reliable for this (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CentOS). Ok, so what things need to be updated, or will need to be in the next year? Start on those now and use some downtime to get ahead of your updates.

Sample of a client’s stack review

Software Purpose Our version Release date End of support Next update Newest version Notes
CentOS OS for e-commerce server 7 July 2014 June 2024 Not imminent 8 https://wiki.centos.org/About/Product
Nginx Web server 1.16.0 March 2020 Unclear Not imminent 1.16.1 https://nginx.org/
PostgreSQL Database server 9.5.20 January 2016 Feb 2020 Medium term, to version 11 12 https://www.postgresql.org/support/versioning/
Rails App framework for store 5.1 February 2017 Current Long Term, to version 6 6 https://rubygems.org/gems/spree/versions
Elasticsearch Search platform for product import/search 5.6.x September 2017 March 2019 Immediate, to version 6.8 7.4 https://www.elastic.co/support/eol
WordPress Info site 5.2.3 September 2019

optimization development seo reporting testing

What is SharePoint?

Dan briones

By Dan Briones
March 25, 2020

Web servers

Image by Taylor Vick

People often ask me about SharePoint, Microsoft’s browser-based collaboration platform which allows users to upload and share all kinds of documents, images, messages, and more. The product has nearly two decades of history and there are still many who don’t know much about it.

The SharePoint platform has grown over those years, but its capabilities have expanded in such a way that it can be quickly dismissed from consideration out of fear of the complexity of its implementation and the cost of deployment. These fears may be unfounded, however. Especially if you are already on Office 365, SharePoint may be included in your plan.

SharePoint was designed as a framework to create and share content on the web without the need to write code. Its purpose was to allow everyone in the organization to collaborate without any specific programming skills. This framework grew over time, adding many different types of content allowing for interactions with other frameworks increasing the effectiveness of any organization’s work product or intellectual property and communications.

Flavors of SharePoint

There are two ‘flavors’ of SharePoint. You can use Microsoft’s cloud-based service or you can host your own on-premises server farm. But I suspect Microsoft’s preference is to wrangle organizations into the cloud, as seen in Microsoft’s SharePoint 2019 online documentation which casually omits references to the on-premises server product. Microsoft offers an inexpensive per-user SharePoint cloud service license for those organizations that don’t want to use Office 365’s other offerings.

On the other hand, on-premises SharePoint Server licensing is very expensive, especially if you wish to design for high availability and create a well-balanced SharePoint server farm. This requires CALs (Client Access Licenses) as well. But the cloud licensing model is very attractive in pricing, especially if you are planning to move your organization’s Exchange email...


tools

Serialization and Deserialization Issues in Spring REST

Kursat aydemir

By Kürşat Kutlu Aydemir
March 17, 2020

Mosaic pattern

Photo by Annie Spratt

Spring Boot projects primarily use the JSON library Jackson to serialize and deserialize objects. It is especially useful that Jackson automatically serializes objects returned from REST APIs and deserializes complex type parameters like @RequestBody.

In a Spring Boot project the automatically registered MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter is usually enough and makes JSON conversions simple, but this may have some issues which need custom configuration. Let’s go over a few good practices for them.

Configuring a Custom Jackson ObjectMapper

In Spring REST projects a custom implementation of MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter helps to create the custom ObjectMapper, as seen below. Whatever custom implementation you need to add to the custom ObjectMapper can be handled by this custom converter:

public class CustomHttpMessageConverter extends MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter {

    private ObjectMapper initCustomObjectMapper() {
        ObjectMapper customObjectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
        return customObjectMapper;
    }

    // ...
}

Additionally, some MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter methods, such as writeInternal, can be useful to override in certain cases. I’ll give a few examples in this article.

In Spring Boot you also need to register a custom MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter like below:

@Bean
MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter() {
    return new CustomHttpMessageConverter();
}

Serialization

Pretty-printing

Pretty-printing in Jackson is disabled by default. By enabling SerializationFeature.INDENT_OUTPUT in the ObjectMapper configuration pretty-print output is enabled (as in the example below). Normally a custom ObjectMapper is not necessary for setting the pretty-print configuration. In some cases, however, like one case of mine in a recent customer project, this configuration might be necessary.

For example, passing a URL parameter can enable pretty-printing. In this case...


json java frameworks spring

Consolidating Multiple SFTP Accounts Into One Master Account

Selvakumar arumugam

By Selvakumar Arumugam
March 16, 2020

merging roads

Photo by Dan Meyers

Recently, a client implemented a data-intensive workflow to generate various reports and insights from a list of facilities as part of an EpiTrax installation. Because a significant portion of these files contain sensitive healthcare data, they needed to strictly comply with HIPAA. Optimally, facilities should be able to transfer files securely and exclusively to our server. One of the best methods of achieving this is to create individual SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) accounts for each source.

SFTP account

Private SFTP accounts were established for each facility and the data was received at a designated path. At these individual points of contact, a third-party application picks up the data and processes further into the pipeline. The following demonstrates how SFTP accounts are developed and configured:

  • Create a user group for SFTP accounts:
$ addgroup sftpusers
  • Configure the following settings in sshd_config (this enables an SFTP account and sets the default location as the home path):
$ vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
...
# override default of no subsystems
Subsystem       sftp    internal-sftp...

Match Group sftpusers
    ChrootDirectory /home/%u
    AllowTCPForwarding no
    X11Forwarding no
    ForceCommand internal-sftp
  • Restart SSH server to apply changes:
$ systemctl restart ssh
  • Create an SFTP user account for a facility and place in a folder on the home path to receive data:
# set new user name
sftpuser=the-new-username
useradd $sftpuser
usermod -g sftpusers -s /usr/sbin/nologin $sftpuser
mkdir -p /home/$sftpuser/INPUT_PATH/
chown -R root:root /home/$sftpuser

Mount multiple accounts to one account

The goal here is to point the data from many facilities to one location, but using a single account and path for multiple sites’ data could result in a breach of security and/​or privacy. Mounting the receiving path of a facility’s data onto a single master account and then to a “mount point” with a unique facility name...


ssh shell security epitrax

Capturing Outgoing Email With Mock SMTP Servers

Patrick lewis

By Patrick Lewis
March 13, 2020

Mailboxes Photo by Seattleye, used under CC BY 2.0, cropped from original.

Sending automated email to users is a common requirement of most web applications and can take the form of things like password reset emails or order confirmation invoices.

It is important for developers working in development/staging environments to verify that an application is sending email correctly without actually delivering messages to users’ inboxes. If you were testing a background task that searches an e-commerce site for abandoned shopping carts and emails users to remind them that they have not completed a checkout, you would not want to run that in development and end up repeatedly emailing live user email addresses.

A mock SMTP server is useful for development and testing because it lets you configure the email settings of your development environment almost exactly the same as you would for outgoing SMTP email in your production site. The mock SMTP server will capture all of the outbound email and allow you to review it in a web interface instead of actually delivering it to users’ inboxes.

Mock SMTP Servers

There are a variety of standalone/free and hosted/commercial options for mock SMTP servers including:

The standalone/free options have been sufficient for the projects I have worked on. Some of the features offered by the hosted solutions like Mailtrap and Mailosaur may be appealing to larger development teams.

MailHog is my go-to mock SMTP server because it has a nice web interface and is extremely easy to install and configure for typical use. The standalone solutions that I have tried all work similarly; they listen for SMTP email on one port, and provide a web interface on a separate port for reviewing captured email.

Configuring a Rails Application to use MailHog

Installation and use of MailHog is very simple: download and run the mailhog executable to...


ruby rails email testing

E-commerce Client Project Management

Greg hanson

By Greg Hanson
March 12, 2020

Banner Photo by You X Ventures on Unsplash

Moving from writing code to managing the show

Many times engineers/​developers make the move from development to project management. It’s a natural move, we want the folks who know the nuts and bolts of e-commerce projects to eventually manage them.

So that’s all fine and dandy, but what if you haven’t been a “manager” before?

  • How do you manage an e-commerce client?
  • How do you manage an e-commerce project?
  • How do you manage engineers/​developers for an e-commerce project?

An answer for each of the above is always: “It depends.” Or maybe more familiarly for Perl developers: TIMTOWTDI.

The reason for that of course is that all of the above questions have variables that will change for every situation.

As a developer, you understand the large number of outcomes that can be introduced into an application by using a single variable. You also understand that the number of outcomes increases proportionally with the number of variables.

The same holds true for management. When you are faced with managing a project, your “variables” now move from placeholders in your code, to placeholders in your project. Where you may have assigned a variable for a “string”, “integer”, or “boolean”, you now may have a “client”, “project”, or “team of developers”.

The point here is that while variables will change from project to project, the “structure” of how you run that project can still remain consistent. Much like designing code to return consistent results while using a wide range of variables.

In order to achieve this type of consistency, the core operations that run within the project, need to be reliable. Over time you will come to develop processes in your projects that will be reliable, and that you will return to time after time, project after project. To get you started, here are a few that should be at the core any project management:

  1. Know your client.
  2. Learn the project.
  3. Know your developers.

These are 3 basic rules that should...


management clients ecommerce

Cooking with CAS

Josh tolley

By Josh Tolley
March 10, 2020

passwords Photo by Flickr user reidrac, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

One of our customers asked us to host a new suite of web-based applications for them and to protect them with a single sign-on (SSO) solution. Ok, easy enough; these applications were in fact designed with a particular SSO system in mind already, but our situation required a different one, and we eventually chose Apereo’s open source Central Authentication Server project, or CAS. I’d like to describe the conversion process we went through.

The ingredients

Our customer’s application suite included:

  • The principal Java application using JAAS authentication
  • Another Java application based on Spring Security
  • A pair of PHP applications
  • A few automated tasks that needed to authenticate.

The original SSO system sets a header on each request, identifying an authenticated user. This requires a gateway system to sanitize request headers to ensure malicious users cannot forge a header themselves. It also requires each application inspect request headers and respond appropriately.

CAS is a bit more complex: applications redirect unauthenticated requests to a CAS server, which authenticates the user through any of various configurable methods. The CAS server then redirects the user back to the original application with a parameter called a “Service Ticket”, a seemingly random number identifying an individual authentication request. The original application contacts the CAS server directly to validate the service ticket and to collect information to identify the user. It can then establish a session for that user, and proceed normally.

To CAS-enable an application, we incorporate one of the CAS client libraries, which exist for various languages. In fact we won’t use the Java client directly, but rather we’ll incorporate components that extend it. When evaluating CAS, I was a bit concerned by what appeared to be a surprisingly limited selection of actively supported client libraries, and of course your results may...


java architecture security programming php spring epitrax

Symfony Quickstart

Arpad lajos

By Árpád Lajos
March 2, 2020

symphony Photo by Arindam Mahanta

This article is written for anyone who has experience working with PHP and is starting to work with Symfony. We won’t assume any prior knowledge you might have with Symfony, so if getting started with this framework is a high priority, then this article is for you. I know that it can be difficult and you may be unsure where to look; I was in the same situation when I first worked with Symfony.

You might be pointed to consult the documentation, but even though the documentation is very detailed and nicely written, you might have a very urgent issue to solve, and thus not have time to read multiple articles about the framework before you start working. You might just need to quickly start, solve a few issues and worry about the details later.

How do I run this stuff?

If your project does not exist yet, you will need to set up Symfony, using the steps nicely outlined in Symfony’s setup guide.

Assuming that the project already exists and you need to quickly start working on it, you will need to run composer install in the root folder of the project to make sure that the dependencies are properly set. This could result in errors; for example, PHP might be not installed in your development environment. In this case, of course, you need to install PHP, which should not be a big problem if we continue to assume that you have some experience with PHP.

Another problem might be that Composer is not yet installed on your machine. If this is the case, install Composer by following the steps here.

You might be missing some PHP extensions at this point or have other problems. If so, read the error messages you get and solve them. If you don’t understand some error messages, don’t worry, you aren’t the first one struggling to make Symfony work. Search for the error message you got paired with the Symfony keyword and find others’ solutions.

Composer

Composer is a server-side package manager which is frequently used by modern PHP applications. In...


symfony php webpack
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